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In a Iranscriplion of his remarks al a 1987 symposium (cited in Harman-Jones & Mills, 1999), he said, "I ended up leaving social psychology .... we should note th a U~ome feminist critics (see Foss & Griffin.
In contrast, their approach, an "invitational approach" to rhetoric, emphasizes cooperation and dialogue. They presume that communication encounters are competitive or adversarial in nature. urged thai an abuse of the rhetorical faculty can work great mi.! the same charge can be brought against all g OQIH'i Il Ce someoue of .wmelhillg.'·· Bei ng an e ffec ti ve persuader is pari a nd parce l of be ing a co mpete nt communi cator. or "smu gg le rs:' wh o re ly o n un scrupulou s tac ti cs. Thi s sugges ts to U ~ thal decisions regardin g how ri ght or wrong any give n influe nce a He mpt is depe nd largely on the natu re o f the situati on fi nd on th e motivc:- of Ihe pe rsuader.' Eve n so. positions, preferences or 'dru ther Noles ________________________________________________________ I. Milkr and Burgoon argued that attribution and equity theories had ended the reign of cognili ve dissonance and OIhcr cogni ti ve cons i ~tency theories. How do civil righls a Clivisl S speak OUI against racism or world leaders lobby for peace agreements? The arguments of some critics, however, focus less on the ends of persuasion and instead point accusing fingers at the means by which persuasion is accomplished. the feminist scholars we mentioned earlier take issue with traditional persuasion because it embodies an adversarial view of communication encounters in which one person is trying to do something to another. Indeed, we would be among the first to acknowledge that in our patriarchal society, people often fail to recognize incentives for cooperative communication. tha I c O mpelel1l co mmuni cators are not onl y e ffect ive in ac hi ev in g the ir goa ls but a lso do so in appropriate ways. we be li eve th at th e power 10 persuade ca rri es with it an o bli gati o n 10 persuade ethi call y. the re see ms to be in c rea~ in g and co ntinucd interes t in ethi cal issues surroundin g persuas ion. Robert C ialdini ( 1999) has co mpared ethi cal pe rsuade r" 10 "s leuths:' Unlike ·'bu ng lers." who use ineffecti ve strategies. rool1l 10 tal"- about '·pcr~uasion.'· the :-.ubjeci the author t C~lchc ... How does a mother warn her five-year-old child never 10 take rides from strangers? The list of good things that can be accomplished through persuasion is endless. Whil e we have no qu a lms abo ut teac hin g stud ent s to become more effec tive persuaders. ll Ould note that some femini~1 scholars admit that pe rsuasion is sometimes neces· .. as a type of communication that devalues the lives and perspectives of others. "one-to-many " persuasive attempts are less in evidence now, you'l I find a host of srudies on new persuasion topics. dialogic encounters may be the ideal to which we should all aspire. that you observed an injustice being committed by one person against another. Specifically, those who argue against the stud y of persuasion are themselves com mittin g a Til quoque fallacy, that is.