Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake

When the data were converted to percentage uptake from the total added gold the results were 0.38%, 2.04%, and 3.33%.The cellular uptake of P-GNTs was the significantly greatest, followed by P-GNRs and P-GNSs.TEM images of cellular uptake and localization of P-GNPs showed that nanoparticles were internalized as single particles after 24 h incubation (Fig.5B–D) and were localized in vacuoles (i.e., endosomes and/or lysosomes) in the perinuclear region of the cells. Cellular uptake of P-GNPs(A) and TEM images of RAW 264.7 after 24 h of incubation with P-GNSs(B), P-GNRs(C), P-GNTs(D). Statistical significance is represented by *p We used endocytic inhibitors to evaluate the involvement of different endocytic pathways in the uptake of these three types of gold nanoparticles.The intracellular concentrations of gold after incubation for 4 h with the P-GNPs were below the detection limit of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES).At 8 h and 24 h, shape and time-dependent cellular uptake was observed (Fig. After incubation for 24 h, gold concentrations in the cells incubated with P-GNSs, P-GNRs, and P-GNTs were 0.154 ± 0.010 pg/cell, 0.814 ± 0.001 pg/cell, and 1.333 ± 0.038 pg/cell, respectively.

Differences in cytotoxicity among these three were not significant (Fig. We chose 20 μg/m L as a safe concentration for studying cellular uptake.The cellular internalization of these nanoparticles by RAW264.7 cells was analyzed, providing a parametric evaluation of the effect of shape.The efficiency of cellular uptake of the gold nanoparticles was found to rank in the following order from lowest to highest: stars, rods, and triangles.A greater understanding of the shape effect on GNP-cell interactions would aid the development of effective tools for drug delivery.However, there have been few studies on cellular uptake of GNPs with different shapes and most of the attention has been given to spherical nanoparticles.

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Surface charge can also have an effect on cellular uptake.

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